BY: K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014)

The potential for spreading through drinking water is the emerging pathogenic bacteria of concern outlined here, but they do not correlate with the existence of E. Coli or with other measures of the consistency of drinking water widely used such as coliform bacteria. There are no satisfactory microbiological markers of their existence in most cases. To understand the real nature and dimension of the diseases caused by water polluted with these bacteria and the ecology of these pathogens, further studies are required.

Mycobacterium Avium Complex (Mac):

The complex Mycobacterium avium (Mac) consists of 28 serovars of two species: Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellular. With the discovery of disseminated infection in immunocompromised individuals, especially people with HIV and AIDS, the Mac species’ significance was recognized. MAC members are deemed to be opportunistic human pathogens. A wide range of environmental sources, including coastal waters, rivers, lakes, streams, wetlands, springs, soil, piped water supplies, plants, and house dust, have defined Mac species. Mac species have been isolated from the delivery systems of natural water and drinking water in the USA. The ubiquitous existence of Mac organisms stems from their ability under varied conditions to thrive and evolve. Mac species can proliferate at temperatures up to 51°C in water and expand over a broad pH range in natural waters. These mycobacteria are incredibly resistant to the use of chlorine and other chemical disinfectants in drinking water care. Standard drinking-water treatments may not remove Mac species but may substantially reduce the numbers present in the source water to a level that poses a negligible risk to the general public if it is running satisfactorily. In delivery systems, the entryway for these mycobacteria is through leaks. For their continued presence in distribution systems, the growth of Mac organisms in biofilms is probably significant.

Slow-growing mycobacteria can be present in the surface biofilm at densities higher than 4,000 per cm2, producing a potentially high exposure level. The signs of Mac infections result from either respiratory or gastrointestinal colonization, potentially spreading to other places in the body. Exposure to Mac species may occur through the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs, the inhalation of air containing contaminated soil particles, or through touch or ingestion, aspiration or aerosolization of the organisms containing drinking water.  Unlike gastrointestinal pathogens, where E. No appropriate indicators have been identified to signal increasing Mac species concentrations in water systems, and coli can suggest possible presence.

Helicobacter pylori:

As a significant etiologic agent for gastritis, Helicobacter pylori has been cited and has been involved in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and peptic disease and gastric carcinoma. Most people who are infected by this pathogen, however, remain asymptomatic. Using methods based on history, H. There has been no isolation of pylori from environmental sources, including water. Molecular methods have, on the other hand, been useful in detecting the pathogen.

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been successfully used to detect this pathogen in drinking water delivery systems and other water bodies. To detect the presence of H, a polymerase chain reaction was also used. Pylori DNA in drinking water, especially biofilm-associated. In biofilms for drinking-water, H. Pylori cells lose culturability rapidly and enter a viable but non-culturable state. Cells persist for more than one month in these biofilms, with densities exceeding 106 cells per square cm. It remains unclear how the organism is transmitted. Nevertheless, the fact that it has been oral-oral or fecal-oral transmission is demonstrated by recuperation from saliva, dental plaques, stomach, and fecal samples. Water and food tend to be of less immediate significance, but they can still play a significant role in improper sanitation and hygiene.

Aeromonas Hydrophyla:

Over the past years, A. Hydrophila has received attention as an opportunistic pathogen for public health. The elderly, children under the age of five, and immunosuppressed persons may play a significant role in intestinal disorders. Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacilli belonging to the Aeromonadaceae family are Aeromonas hydrophila. Even though the dominant species is typically hydrophila, whereas other aeromonads, such as A.Sobria, and A.Caviae were isolated from human feces and water sources. Species of Aeromonas, including A. Hydrophila, in the field, are ubiquitous. It is also segregated from food, potable water, and aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of Aeromonas spp. in safe rivers and lakes Typically, 102 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL are around. In general, groundwater contains less than 1 CFU/mL. It was noticed that drinking water immediately leaving the treatment plant contained between 0 and 102 CFU/mL. Drinking water can show higher concentrations of Aeromonas in delivery systems due to the growth of biofilms. With Aeromonas spp. growth was observed between 5° – 45° C.

A. Hydrophila is immune to standard treatments with chlorine and is likely to live within biofilms. Ingestion of infected water or food or touch of the organism with a break in the skin are the typical routes of infection suggested for Aeromonas. A potential source of pollution for human beings may be drinking or natural mineral water. There was no recorded person-to-person transmission.