What it is about?

This section classified with the list of useful acronyms, initialisms and perhaps one or two abbreviations from the life science background.

AAV – adeno‐associated virus Ab antibody

ABC Transporters – ATP Binding Cassette Transporters

AChR – acetylcholine receptor

ACT – adoptive cell transfer

ACTH – adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADA – adenosine deaminase

ADCC – antibody‐dependent cellular cytotoxicity

AEP – asparagine endopeptidase

Ag – antigen

AHL – Acyl Homoserine Lactone

AID – activation‐induced cytidine deaminase

AIDS – acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

AIRE – autoimmune regulator

ALBA – addressable laser bead assay

ALS – Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

ANCA – antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

APC – antigen‐presenting cell

ARRE‐1 – antigen receptor response element‐1

ARRE‐2 – antigen receptor response element‐2

ART – antiretroviral therapy

ASFV – African swine fever virus

AZT – zidovudine (3′‐azido‐3′‐deoxythymidine)

AZT : Azidothymidine

BAC : Bacterial Artificial Chromosome

BAFF – B‐cell‐activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family
B‐cell – lymphocyte which matures in bone marrow
BCG – bacille Calmette–Guérin attenuated form of tuberculosis
BCR – B‐cell receptor
BM – bone marrow

BPPI : Biophysics of Proteins and Protein Interactions
BSA – bovine serum albumin
BSE – bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Btk – Bruton’s tyrosine kinase
BUDR – bromodeoxyuridine

Cα(β/γ/δ) –  constant part of TCR α(β/γ/δ) chain

CALLA –  common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen

cAMP –  cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CCP –  complement control protein repeat

CD –  cluster of differentiation

CDR –  complementarity determining regions of Ig or TCR
variable portion

CEA –  carcinoembryonic antigen

CFA –  complete Freund’s adjuvant

cGMP –  cyclic guanosine monophosphate

ChIP – chromatin immunoprecipitation

CHIP –  chemotaxis inhibitory protein

CH(L)  –  constant part of Ig heavy (light) chain

CLA –  cutaneous lymphocyte antigen

CLIP –  class II‐associated invariant chain peptide

CMI –  cell‐mediated immunity

CML –  cell‐mediated lympholysis

CMV –  cytomegalovirus

Cn –  complement component “n”

iCn –  inactivated complement component “n”

Cna –  small peptide derived by proteolytic activation of Cn

CpG –  cytosine phosphate‐guanosine dinucleotide motif

CR(n) –  complement receptor “n”

CRP –  C‐reactive protein

CSF –  cerebrospinal fluid

CSR –  class switch recombination

CTLR –  C‐type lectin receptor

CSLM –  Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope

CFU –  Colony Forming Unit

CDK –  Cycline Dependent Kinases

DAF – decay accelerating factor

DAG – diacylglycerol

DAMP – danger‐associated molecular pattern

DC – dendritic cells

D gene – diversity minigene joining V and J segments to form variable region

DMARD – disease‐modifying antirheumatic drug

DNP – dinitrophenyl

DTH – delayed‐type hypersensitivity

DTP – diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis triple vaccine

DAP – Diamine Phosphate

DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid

DIC – Differential Interference Contrast Microscope

DDT – Dichlorodiphenyl Trichloroethane

EBV – Epstein–Barr virus

ELISA – enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay

EM – electron microscope

Eo – eosinophil

EPO – erythropoietin

ER – endoplasmic reticulum

ES – embryonic stem (cell)

ESR – Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate

ET – exfoliative toxins

F(B) – factor (B, etc.)

FAB – Antigen Binding Factor

Fab – monovalent Ig antigen‐binding fragment after papain digestion

F(ab′)2 – divalent antigen‐binding fragment after pepsin digestion

FACS – fluorescence‐activated cell sorter

FasL – Fas‐ligand

Fc – Ig crystallizable‐fragment originally; now non‐Fab part of Ig

FcγR – receptor for IgG Fc fragment

FDC – follicular dendritic cell

flt‐3 – flk‐2 ligand

FMN – Flavin Mononucleotide

GADS –  GRB2‐related adaptor protein

g.b.m. – glomerular basement membrane

G‐CSF –  granulocyte colony‐stimulating factor

GEFs –  guanine‐nucleotide exchange factors

GM‐CSF –  granulocyte–macrophage colony‐stimulating factor

gpn –  n kDa glycoprotein

GRB2 –  growth factor receptor‐binding protein 2

GSK3 –  glycogen synthase kinase 3

GVH –  graft versus host

GRAS –  Generally Recognized As Safe

H‐2 –  the mouse major histocompatibility complex

H‐2D/K/L(A/E) –  main loci for classical class I (class II) murine MHC molecules

HAMA –  human antimouse antibodies

HATA –  human antitoxin antibody

HBsAg –  hepatitis B surface antigen

hCG –  human chorionic gonadotropin

HCMV –  human cytomegalovirus

HEL – hen egg lysozyme

HEV –  high‐walled endothelium of postcapillary venule

HIV –  human immunodeficiency virus

HLA –  human major histocompatibility complex

HMG –  high mobility group

HR –  hypersensitive response

HRF –  homologous restriction factor

HSA –  heat‐stable antigen

HSC –  hematopoietic stem cell

hsp –  heat‐shock protein

5HT –  5‐hydroxytryptamine

HTLV –  human T‐cell leukemia virus

H‐Y –  male transplantation antigen

HDP – Helix Destabilising Protein

IBD – inflammatory bowel disease

ICAM‐1 – intercellular adhesion molecule‐1

Id (αId) – idiotype (anti‐idiotype)

IDC – interdigitating dendritic cells

IDDM – insulin‐dependent diabetes mellitus

IDO – indoleamine 2,3‐dioxygenase

IEL – intraepithelial lymphocyte

IFNα – α‐interferon (also IFNβ, IFNγ)

IFR – interferon‐regulated factor

Ig – immunoglobulin

IgG – immunoglobulin G (also IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE) sIg surface immunoglobulin

Ig‐α/Ig‐β – membrane peptide chains associated with sIg B‐cell receptor

IgSF – immunoglobulin superfamily

IL‐1 – interleukin‐1 (also IL‐2, IL‐3, etc.)

iNOS – inducible nitric oxide synthase

IP3 – inositol trisphosphate

ISCOM – immunostimulating complex

ITAM – immunoreceptor tyrosine‐based activation motif

ITIM – immunoreceptor tyrosine‐based inhibitory motif

ITP – idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

IVIg – intravenous immunoglobulin

JAK – Janus kinases

J chain – polypeptide chain in IgA dimer and IgM pentamer

J gene – joining gene linking V or D segment to constant region

Ka(d) – association (dissociation) affinity constant (usually Ag–Ab reactions)

kDa – units of molecular mass in kilodaltons

KIR – killer immunoglobulin‐like receptors

KLH – keyhole limpet hemocyanin

LAK – lymphokine‐activated killer cell
LAMP – lysosomal‐associated membrane proteins
LAT – linker for activation of T‐cells
LATS – long‐acting thyroid stimulator
LBP – LPS‐binding protein
LCM – lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
Lea/b/x – Lewisa/b/x blood group antigens
LFA‐1 – lymphocyte function‐associated antigen‐1
LGL – large granular lymphocyte
LHRH – luteinizing hormone releasing hormone
LIF – leukemia inhibiting factor
LPS – lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin)
LRR – leucine‐rich repeat
LT(B) – leukotriene (B etc.)

mAb – monoclonal antibody

MAC – membrane attack complex

MAdCAM – mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule

MALT – mucosa‐associated lymphoid tissue

MAMMycoplasma arthritidis mitogen

MAP – kinase mitogen‐activated protein kinase

MAPKKK – mitogen‐associated protein kinase kinase kinase

MBL – mannose binding lectin

MBP – major basic protein of eosinophils (also myelin basic protein)

MCP – membrane cofactor protein (complement regulation)

MCP‐1 – monocyte chemotactic protein‐1

M‐CSF – macrophage colony‐stimulating factor

MDP – muramyl dipeptide

MHC – major histocompatibility complex

MICA – MHC class I chain‐related A chain

MIDAS – metal ion‐dependent adhesion site

MIF – macrophage migration inhibitory factor

MIIC – MHC class II‐enriched compartments

MLA – monophosphoryl lipid A

MLR – mixed lymphocyte reaction

MMTV – mouse mammary tumor virus

– macrophage

MRSA – methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MS – multiple sclerosis

MSC – mesenchymal stem cell

MSH – melanocyte stimulating hormone

MTP – microsomal triglyceride‐transfer protein

MuLV – murine leukemia virus

NADP – nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NAP – neutrophil activating peptide
NBT – nitroblue tetrazolium
NCF – neutrophil chemotactic factor
NFAT – nuclear factor of activated T‐cells
NFkB – nuclear transcription factor
NK – natural killer cell
NLR – NOD‐like receptor
NO – nitric oxide
NOD – nonobese diabetic mouse
NZB – New Zealand Black mouse
NZB × W – New Zealand Black mouse × NZ White F1 hybrid

O2 – superoxide anion
OD – optical density
ORF – open reading frame
OS – obese strain chicken
Ova – ovalbumin

PAF(‐R) – platelet activating factor (‐receptor)
PAGE – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PAMP – pathogen‐associated molecular pattern
PBSCs – peripheral blood stem cells
PCA – passive cutaneous anaphylaxis
PCR – polymerase chain reaction
PERV – porcine endogenous retroviruses
PG(E) – prostaglandin (E etc.)
PHA – phytohemagglutinin
phox – phagocyte oxidase
PI3K – phosphatidylinositol 3‐kinase
PIAS – protein inhibitor of activated STAT
pIgR – poly‐Ig receptor

PIP2 – phosphatidylinositol diphosphate
PKC – protein kinase C
PKR – RNA‐dependent protein kinase
PLC – phospholipase C
PLCγ2 – phospholipase Cγ2
PMN – polymorphonuclear neutrophil
PMT – photomultiplier tube
PNH – paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
PPAR – peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor
PPD – purified protein derivative from Mycobacterium tuberculosis
PRR – pattern recognition receptor
PTFE – polytetrafluoroethylene
PTK – protein tyrosine kinase
PWM – pokeweed mitogen

RA – rheumatoid arthritis
RANTES – regulated upon activation normal T‐cell expressed and secreted chemokine
RAST – radioallergosorbent test
RF – rheumatoid factor
Rh(D) – rhesus blood group (D)
RIP – rat insulin promoter
RLR – RIG‐like helicase receptor
RNAi – RNA interference
ROI – reactive oxygen intermediates
RSS – recombination signal sequence

SAP – serum amyloid P
SAP – sphingolipid activator protein
SAR – systemic acquired resistance
SARS – severe acute respiratory syndrome
SARS‐CoV – SARS‐associated coronavirus
SC – Ig secretory component
SCF – stem cell factor
scFv – single‐chain variable region antibody fragment (VH + VL joined by a flexible linker)
– sodium cromoglycate
SCID – severe combined immunodeficiency
SDF – stromal‐derived factor
SDS – sodium dodecyl sulfate
SDS‐PAGE – sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
SEA (B etc.) – Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (B etc.)
SEREX – serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries
siRNA – short‐interfering RNA
SIV – Simian immunodeficiency virus
SLE – systemic lupus erythematosus
SLIT – sublingual allergen immunotherapy
SLP‐76 – SH2‐domain containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa
SOCs – suppressor of cytokine signaling
SPE – streptococcal pyogenic exotoxins
SRID – single radial immunodiffusion
SSA – streptococcal superantigen
STAT – signal transducer and activator of transcription

TACI – transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand [CAML]
T‐ALL – T‐acute lymphoblastic leukemia
TAP – transporter associated with antigen processing
TB – tubercle bacillus
Tc – cytotoxic T‐cell
T‐cell – thymus‐derived lymphocyte
TCF – T‐cell factor
TCR1(2) – T‐cell receptor with γ/δ chains (with α/β chains)
TdT – terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase
TG‐A‐L– polylysine with polyalanyl side‐chains randomly tipped with tyrosine and glutamic acid
TGFβ – transforming growth factor β
Th(1/2/3/9/17) – T‐helper cell (subset 1, 2, 3, 9, or 17)
THF – thymic humoral factor
Thp – T‐helper precursor
TLI – total lymphoid irradiation
TLR – Toll‐like receptor
TM – transmembrane
TNF – tumor necrosis factor
TNP – trinitrophenol
TPO – thrombopoietin
Treg – regulatory T‐cell
Ts – suppressor T‐cell
TSAb – thyroid stimulating antibodies
TSE – transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
TSH(R) – thyroid stimulating hormone (receptor)
TSLP – thymic stromal lymphopoietin
TSST – toxic shock syndrome toxin
TUNEL – TdT‐mediated dUTP (deoxyuridine trisphosphate) nick end labeling

Vα(β/γ/δ) – variable part of TCR α(β/γ/δ) chain
VCAM – vascular cell adhesion molecule
vCJD – variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease
VCP – valosin‐containing protein
VEGF – vascular endothelial cell growth factor
VH – variable part of Ig heavy chain
VIMP VCP ‐interacting membrane protein
VIP – vasoactive intestinal peptide
Vk/λ – variable part of k(λ) light chain
VL – variable part of light chain
VLA – very late antigen
VLP – virus‐like particle
VNTR – variable number of tandem repeats
VP1 – virus‐specific peptide 1

XL – X‐linked

ZAP‐70 – zeta chain‐associated protein of 70 kDa

All the content of this section has been selected from different standard books , International journals, Research articles, etc.

  • Cellular and Molecular Immunology by Abul K. Abbas – 7thEdition 
  • Kuby Immunology – 5thEdition 
  • The Cell: A Molecular Approach by Geoffrey M. Cooper – 8thEdition 
  • Prescott’s Microbiology -Lansing M. Prescott, John P. Harley, Donald A. Klein- 11th Edition.
  • Microbiology-MICHAEL J. PELCZAR.
  • Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry-David Nelson, Michael Cox. sixth edition.
  • Concepts of Genetics, 7th Edition- William S Klug, Michael Cummings.
  • Roitt’s Essential Immunology, Thirteenth edition.




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