Research methodology

By- Ezhuthachan Mithu Mohanan, ( MSIWM043 )

Research methodology: The method of conducting research, by formulating problems, finding objectives, presenting result is all the crucial steps in any research. Sources of data and population consideration, ethical values, sample determination, methods executing plays a vital role before undertaking the research proposal.


  • Obtaining novel opinions and developing skills
  • Characterizing particular character, group or condition.
  • Finding interlinked connections
  • To test hypothesis.

In biological research following types can be included:


Identifying Research problem

  The initial step of any researcher is to identify the general are of interest. There are main two steps in formulating any research 

  • Understanding the problem
  • Reshape according to analytical view.

Having guidance and restoring problems already existing and engaging oneself in discussion makes it easy for identifying the research problem.

Literature review

 This is basically done to get a familiarity with the problem. Literature can be conceptual, empirical, etc. There are many source of literature; it could be abstracts, journals, bibliographies, conferences, academic journals, government reports, books. This helps in formulating problems. After the review one should focus on writing a synopsis.

Formulation of hypothesis:

Hypothesis is a tentative explanation made based on the available limited evidences. Formulating hypothesis enables to find the objective as well as result interpretation. Various approaches for formulating hypotheses:

  • Discussion with guide, and coworkers
  • Assessments of records and available data
  • Evaluating previous studies done
  • Personal investigation

Research design:

After the research problem is designed then the next step is to design the research. It involves choosing various components for  research Study.

Determining sample:

Selection of sample is utmost necessary for the development of any protocol or formulation. There are mainly two types of samples, which includes Nonprobability and probability.

  • Nonprobability sampling:  subjective methods of sampling
  • Probability sampling: It is simple random sampling, systematic sampling, cluster sampling

 Data Collection:

The process of gathering information enabling answer stated questions, testing hypothesis and evaluating outcomes. To maintain integrity of research accurate data collection is necessary.

Proper data collected must include:

  • Ability to answer research questions
  • Ability to repeat and validate the study
  • Less wastage of resources
  • No compromises for the fulfillment of requirement
  • No harm to human or subject studies

To maintain integrity there are two elements which is helpful

Quality assuranceQuality control
Before data collectionDuring or after data collection
Standardization of protocolCareful documentation of protocol.

Data analysis:

Process of applying statistical and logical techniques systematically, to describe, illustrate and evaluate data is known as data analysis.

Proper data analysis must include:

  • Skills to analyze data
  • Appropriate subgroup analysis
  • Acceptable discipline norms
  • Statistical significance
  • Clearly defined objective
  • Accurate results
  • Presenting data
  • Reliability and validity
  • Appropriate category considerations

 Testing hypothesis:

Process to evaluate the strength of evidence and providing framework for determination.

The two main steps in testing hypothesis is framing null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis

Null hypothesis: No statistical significance exists in the given set of observation. This is assumed to be true.

Alternative hypothesis: It is opposite to null hypothesis

 Interpretation: After analytical and experimental study, the drawn inferences is known as interpretation. The major aspects of interpretation is 

  • Establish continuity
  • And establish explanation concepts.
  • Preparation of report:

There should always be the necessary documentation of each and every result. The research reports contains following  elements

  • Description and methodology
  • Obtained results
  • The recommendations made

There are two types of Research reports 

  • Technical reports: which aim to specific group of people, including scientist, researchers, guides, belonging to the area
  • Popular reports: which can be understood my lay man or common people, in more easy and feasible way, with less technical words.
  • Presentation of results: It can be done in various ways including writing research papers, presenting in conferences, writing drafts, discussing, Seminar presentation or oral presentation.

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