Second metabolites are natural compounds that are not directly involved in normal growth, growth or metabolism. The second metabolism of the plant produces products that help the growth and development of the plant but are not necessary for the plant to survive. A common role of secondary metabolites in plants is to protect the egg that is used to fight weeds, insects and germs. In humans they plant the second most important metabolite as it is used in many fields such as medicine, flavoring agent, dye etc. The main contributors are the specific aroma, color and taste of the plant parts. The secondary metabolites play a role and play an important role in potential immune systems, especially in the chemical warfare between plants and their bacteria. Some of these compounds have also been shown to play a role in the fight against pests and pollinators, allopathic agents, and toxins, UV light protection, and signal transmission. Food, cosmetics, drugs and their important role in plant protection.

 The general role of secondary metabolites

 Plants to protect plants such as weed control, weed control and insecticides. For humans, plant second most important metabolites as they are used in many fields such as medicines, flavoring agents, dyes etc.

 Functions of secondary plant metabolites

• Major activities include

• Competitive weapons against biological agents such as animals, plants, insects and micro-organisms.

• Metal transport agents

• Agents for compatibility with other organisms

• Reproductive agent

• They make a difference

• Biodiversity coordinators



 An alkaloid is defined as a natural or synthetic product, which contains one or more nitrogen atoms, usually heterocyclic, and contains certain substances in the human or animal body, if used in small amounts. Most are based on a few amino acids. Chemicals have a ring structure and nitrogen residues. Indole alkaloids are the largest group in the family, based on tryptophan. They are widely used as medicine.


 It is hard, crystalline and has a sharp melting point. Some alkaloids are amorphous compounds and some like coniine, nicotine are naturally liquid. Some alkaloids are naturally colored e.g. Betanidine shows red, Berberine shows yellow Most of the alkaloid salts are dissolved in water. Water bases only melt in water. Pseudo and proto alkaloids provide high solubility in water. Melting and alkaloid salts help the pharmaceutical industry to extract They provide the color edge with a halogenated compound

Chemical properties

• Basic in response

• It turns neutral or acidic when active groups are associated with the release of electrons such as amide grp.

• Formation of salt by inorganic Acid – their decomposition during storage

• It contains one or more nitrogen

• Natural – can be in the form of free salt such as amine or as a salty acid or alk. N-oxide


 Various kinds of fruits and flowers and spices. The word is derived from the word turpentine. Turpentine, also known as “pine resin”, is viscous, fragrant, and does not melt in flowing water when cutting or carving new bark and wood of pine species (Pinaceae). Turpentine contains “resin acids” and other hydrocarbons, formerly called terpenes. They are used in cloves, essential oils and medicines. Terpenes are mainly composed of Fusion of 5 Carbon Isoprene Units The basic elements of the structure of terpenes are sometimes called units of isoprene because terpenes can decompose at high temperatures to provide isoprene. All terpenes are sometimes called isoprenoids. Therefore, Terpenes are unused compounds made by joining together isoprene units.

Terpenes are divided into five carbon components.

• Ten terpenes, containing two units of C5, are called monoterpenes

• Three carbon terpenes (three C5 units) are sesquiterpenes

• Two carbon terpenes (four C5 units) are diterpenes.

• Large terpenes include triterpenes (30 carbons), tetraterpenes (40 carbons), and polyterpenoids


Are hydrocarbons of plant origin of the common formula (C5H8) n their oxygen, which comes from hydrogenated and water.

Body structures

 • Colorless liquid, soluble in natural solvents and soluble in water, active, environmentally friendly, boiling area: 150-180 ° C.

Chemical properties

Impure Chemicals, They deal with additional reactions with hydrogen, halogen acid to form additional products such as NOCl, NOBr and hydrates. They can undergo polymerization and dehydrogenation in the ring In hot rot, terpenoids release isoprene as early as production.

Terpenoids are classified based on the number of rings present in terpenoids

• Acyclic terpenoids (Eg Citronellal, Citral)

• Monocyclic terpenoids (Ex. Menthol, alpha-terpineol)

• Bicyclic terpenoids (The size of the first ring is the same in all, and the size of the second ring varies). Depending on the size of the second ring, the other is divided –

1. From Bornane (Eg Camphane)

2. Based on Norbornane

• I-terriceno terriceno

• Tetracyclic terpenoids


 The phenolic compounds of benzene have one or more hydroxyl groups.The plants are produced mainly to protect against stress.They are widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Many second plant metabolites. Forms 40% plant soluble protein. More than 8000 phenolics properties are known. Lignin (polyphenol) is the second most abundant compound in the plant

 Sources of phenolics

• Fruits

• Vegetables

• Books

• Olive

• Legumes

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